Democracy is a form of political government whose governmental authority comes from the people, either directly (direct democracy) or through representation (representative democracy). This term is derived from the Greek δημοκρατία - ( dēmokratía ) "people's power", which was formed from the words δῆμος ( demos ) "people" and κράτος ( Kratos ) "power", referring to the political system that emerged in the mid-5th century and into -4 BC in the ancient Greek city-states, specifically Athens, following a popular revolution in 508 BC.
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The term democracy was first introduced by Aristotle as a form of government, namely government which outlines that power is in the hands of many people (people). Abraham Lincoln in his Gettysburg speech defines democracy as "government of the people, by the people, and for the people".
This means that the highest power in the democratic system is in the hands of the people and the people have the same rights, opportunities and voice in regulating government policies. Through democracy, decisions made are based on majority votes.
Here Is An Understanding Of Democracy According To Experts.
The definition of democracy is as a freedom, or the principle of freedom of democracy because only through freedom can every citizen share power. Aristotle states that there are in each person (individual) as a citizen it is balanced in the number of yaikni 1 and 1 and is also not seen from a value of 1 person. He also added that someone who lives without being free to choose his way of life is the same as a slave.
Understanding democracy is a form of government in which all citizens have equal rights in taking a policy that can also affect their lives.
Based on the definition of democracy is to give permission directly or through representation in the design, development and also the making of rules. Democracy must pay attention to social, economic and cultural conditions that provide possibilities in the application of political freedom freely and often equally.
Understanding democracy is a social system and also political self-government with government power that is limited by law and also the habit of being able to protect individual rights of citizens.
Understanding Democracy is a form of government in which important government decisions are directly or indirectly based on a majority agreement freely given from the adult people.
Democracy exists if the most powerful collective decision makers in a system are chosen through a fair, honest and also periodic election and in that system candidates are free to compete to be able to get a vote and also almost all the adult population can vote. .
Prof. Mr. Muhammad Yamin
Democracy is the basis for forming a government and a society in which the power to govern or regulate is legally held, but because of all members of society.
The meaning of democracy is "including the way in which the governing and also the governed groups are the same and not separate.
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History of Democracy
Before the term democracy was invented by the Greek population, a simple form of democracy had been found since 4000 BC in Mesopotamia. At that time, the Sumerians had several independent city-states. In each of these city states the people often gather to discuss a problem and decisions are taken based on consensus or consensus.
It was only in 508 BC, the population of Athens in Greece formed a system of government which was the forerunner of modern democracy. Greece at that time consisted of 1,500 small and independent city states ( poleis ).
The city state has a different system of government, there are oligarchs, monarchies, tyranny and democracy. Among them was Athens, a city state that tried a new model of government at that time, namely direct democracy. The initiator of this democracy was first Solon, a poet and statesman.
The constitutional reform package he wrote in 594 BC became the basis for democracy in Athens but Solon failed to make changes. Democracy could only be achieved one hundred years later by Cleisthenes, an Athenian aristocrat.
In this democracy, there is no representation in government, instead each person represents himself by issuing opinions and choosing policies. But of the approximately 150,000 inhabitants of Athens, only one fifth can be the people and voice their opinions.
This democracy was then emulated by the Romans in 510 BC to 27 BC. The democratic system used is representative democracy where there are representatives from the aristocracy in the Senate and representatives from ordinary people in the Assembly.
Forms of Democracy
In general there are two forms of democracy, namely direct democracy and representative democracy.
Direct democracy is a form of democracy in which every person votes or opinions in determining a decision. In this system, each person represents himself in choosing a policy so that they have a direct influence on the political situation that occurs.
The direct democratic system was used in the early days of the formation of democracy in Athens where when there was a problem that had to be solved, all the people gathered to discuss it.
In the modern era this system becomes impractical because in general a country's population is quite large and gathering all people in one forum is difficult. In addition, this system requires high participation from the people while modern people tend not to have time to study all the country's political problems.
In representative democracy, all people elect representatives through general elections to express their opinions and make decisions for them.
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Function of Democracy
- A political system that provides power in electing the people's leaders and also the government freely and equally in elections.
- Giving individuals as citizens to be able to actively participate in politics and as citizens.
- Providing protection to human rights of citizens
- Produce a rule that applies to all citizens indiscriminately
Principles of Democracy
People can freely express their aspirations in political and social policies. The principles of democracy and the prerequisites of the establishment of a democratic state have been accommodated in the constitution of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. The principles of democracy, can be reviewed from the opinion of Almadudi who came to be known as the "pillar of democracy". According to him, the principles of democracy are:
- Sovereignty of the people;
- Government based on approval from the governed;
- Majority power;
- Minority rights;
- Guaranteed human rights;
- Free and honest elections;
- Equality before the law;
- Reasonable legal process;
- Constitutional government restrictions;
- Social, economic and political pluralism;
- The values of tolerance, pragmatism, cooperation, and consensus.
Principle of Democracy
The main idea or basic idea of a democratic government is the recognition of human nature, which is basically humans have the same ability in social relations. Based on these basic ideas, there are two basic principles of democracy, namely:
- Recognition of people's participation in government, for example the election of people's representatives to people's representative institutions directly, publicly, freely, and confidentially as well as honest and fair; and
- Recognition of human nature and dignity, for example the existence of government actions to protect human rights for the common good.
Characteristics of Domocratic Government
Elections directly reflect a good democracy. In its development, democracy has become an accepted and used order by almost all countries in the world. The characteristics of a democratic government are as follows:
- The involvement of citizens (people) in political decision making, both directly and indirectly (representative).
- Recognition, appreciation and protection of the basic rights of the people (citizens).
- The existence of equal rights for all citizens in all fields.
- The existence of an independent judiciary and judicial authority as a law enforcement tool
- There is freedom and independence for all citizen.
- There is a press (mass media) that is free to convey information and control government behavior and policies.
- There is a general election to elect representatives who sit in the people's representative institutions.
- The existence of free, honest, fair elections to determine (elect) state and government leaders and members of people's representative institutions.
- Recognition of differences in diversity (ethnicity, religion, class, etc.).
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Kinds of Democracy
The following are kinds of democracies ranging from modern democracies, ways of conveying, points of attention / priorities, based on authority, ideological principles.
- Liberal democracy, namely: The government is limited by laws and free elections that are held for a long time.
- Guided democracy: Leaders believe that all their actions are trusted by the people, but reject competition in elections for power.
- Social democracy: Put concern on social justice and egalitarianism for the requirements to gain political trust.
- Participatory democracy: Which emphasizes the mutual relationship between the ruler and the ruled.
- Constitutional Democracy: Which emphasizes the special protection of cultural groups and emphasizes close cooperation between the elites who represent the main cultural parts of society.
Democracy How to Express Opinion
- Direct democracy . The people are directly involved in the decision making process to carry out government policies.
- Indirect democracy / representative democracy . Democracy is carried out by the people through representatives of the people they elect through elections.
- Representative democracy with a system of direct supervision of the people. This democracy is a mixture of direct democracy with representative democracy, the people elect their representatives to sit in the institution of people's representatives, but the people's representatives in carrying out their duties are monitored by the people through referendums and people's initiatives.
Referendums are classified into three types, namely:
- Mandatory Referendum (Referendum Obligator) This referendum is conducted when there is a change or the formation of important and fundamental norms in the constitution or a very political law.
- Referendum is not mandatory / faculty referendum. The referendum is carried out if a certain time after the bill is announced, a number of people propose a refendum. If within a certain time there is no demand from the people, the draft law can become a permanent law.
- Consultative Referendum. This referendum is only limited to asking for approval, because the people do not understand the problem, the government requests consideration from experts in certain fields related to the problem.
Democracy Based on Points of Attention / Priority
- Formal Democracy This democracy in general sets all people in the same position in the political field without reducing economic inequality. Individuals are given broad freedom, so this democracy is also called liberal democracy.
- Material Democracy Material democracy views humans as having similarities in social, economic fields, so that equality in the political field is not a priority. This kind of democracy was developed in a socialist, communist country.
- Mixed Democracy This democracy is a mixture of the two democracies above. This democracy seeks to create the welfare of all people by placing equality and the rights of everyone.
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Democracy Based on Ideological Principles
- Liberal democracy This democracy addresses broad freedom of the individual. Arbitrary actions of the government against its citizens are avoided, the government acts on the basis of the constitution.
- People's democracy / proletarian democracy This democracy is agreed to the welfare of the people. The country formed knows no class differences. All citizens have equality in law and politics.
Democracy Based on Authority
Parliamentary system democracy, the characteristics of parliamentary government include:
- The DPR is stronger than the government
- The minister is responsible to the DPR
- The cabinet policy program is adjusted to the political objectives of MPs.
- Position of head of state as a symbol
Presidesial system democracy:
The characteristics of government that use a presidential system are as follows:
- The country is headed by the president.
- Power from and by the people through a representative body.
- The President has the power to appoint and dismiss ministers.
- The minister is not accountable to the DPR but to the president. The President and Parliament have the same position as state institutions and cannot disperse each other.
Democracy in Indonesia
Parliamentary Democracy (1945 - 1959)
- Political life and governance are unstable, so the programs of a country cannot be implemented well and continuously. Often the task of implementing government changes.
- The position of the state is under the DPR and its existence depends on the support of the DPR and other countries. The emergence of a very fundamental difference between the political parties that existed at that time.
Guided Democracy (1959 - 1965)
- Guided Democracy was born from conviction, awareness, and belief in the evils caused by the practice of parliamentary democracy.
- Conceptually, guided democracy has advantages that can overcome the problems faced by society.
- The main points of Guided Democracy according to Bung Karno dated April 22, 1959 as follows:
- Guided democracy is not a dictator
- Guided democracy is a democracy that is compatible with the personality and basis of Indonesian life.
- Guided democracy is democracy in all matters of state and society which includes the political, economic and social fields.
- The essence of leaders in guided democracy is deliberation led by wisdom.
- Opposition in the sense of giving birth to sound and constructive opinions in Guided Democracy.
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- Democracy of the Pancasila in the New Order Era (1966 - 1998)
- Pancasila democracy originates from the mindset and social and cultural values of the Indonesian nation and respects individual rights that are inseparable from social interests.
- Pancasila democracy does not conflict with the principle of constitutional democracy.
- Pancasila democracy originates from family and mutual cooperation.
- Deviations made by the new order especially those related to Pancasila, namely:
- The implementation of ELECTION which is not honest and fair
- Restriction of political freedom for civil servants.
- There is still government intervention in the judiciary.
- Lack of guarantee of freedom of expression.
- Non-autonomous and one-sided party systems.
- The rise of KKN practices.
- Ministers and governors are appointed as members of the MPR.
- Democracy of the Pancasila during the Reform Order (1998 - present)
- The democracy carried out is still Pancasila democracy. The difference lies in the rules of implementation and implementation practices.
- There are changes in the implementation of Democracy in the reform era as follows:
- Elections are more democratic.
- Political parties are more independent.
- Human rights regulation.
- Democratic institutions are more functioning.
- Pancasila democracy can only be carried out properly if the values contained therein can be understood and lived as political cultural values that influence the political attitudes of its supporters.
- The implementation of Pancasila democracy must be accompanied by the development of the nation as a whole because development is a process of change towards the progress and process of national education to improve the quality of life of the nation.
Developing a Democratic Attitude
Democratic attitude education can be carried out in children's educational institutions, schools, lectures, communities and government. To develop democratic attitudes, the learning and education process will be more effective if it starts from within the family and formal education. Developing an attitude of democracy would be better starting from the age of toddlers and school children.
Some guidelines that can help parents instill democratic values in children are:
- Give serious attention to children who are trying to express their feelings, opinions before the child has finished expressing his opinion.
- Try to be a good speaker.
- Respect for children.
- Provide an opportunity to improve before giving sanctions.
- Involve children in decision making.
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